10th Course : Direct Methods of Solving Crystal Structures

7 to 19 April 1984


Director : Carmelo Giacovazzo, Bari

Purpose of the Course

It is more than seventy years since the discovery of the X ray diffraction by crystals, and crystallography has since established an ever widening sphere of influence in science. The solving of crystal structure has had an increasing impact in many fields - for example physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, medicine, metallurgy, mineralogy and geology.

Postgraduate courses at the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture periodically review the advancement of crystallography. They usually concentrate onm interdisciplinary frotier topics.

About 70% of crystal structures are solved by means of two "direct methods" procedures. The first is the multisolution approach where many possible sets of phases are developed and refined to give the correct solution. The other approach uses relationships among phases of a more complicated nature in order to analyze a small number of possible sets of phases. Specialists of both fields will be present in Erice.

The meeting will have the character of a "course" more than a formal congress. Its basic aim is to introduce non-expert people in the field and stimulate a fruitful exchange of ideas, problems and goals.

Topics (scientific sequence) and LECTURERS (alphabetic)

The fundamental principles of Direct Methods G. ALLEGRA, Milan Polytechnic, Italy
Structure factor algebra P. BEURSKENS, University of Nijmegen, Netherlands
Multisolution methods G. BRICOGNE, Columbia University, NY, USA
Symbolic addition methods C. GIACOVAZZO, University of Bari, Italy
From a partial to a complete structure H: HAUPTMAN, Medical Res.h Foundation, Buffalo, NY, USA
Phase extension and refinement I. KARLE, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, USA
Phase invariants and seminvariants: theory and applications J. KARLE, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, USA
Determinantal methods J. KROON, University of Utrecht, Netherlands
Maximal entropy and direct methods P. MAIN, York University, UK
Direct methods in macromolecular crystallography D. SAYRE, IBM Research Labs, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA
  H. SCHENK, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
  G. SHELDRICK, University of Goettingen, F.R. Germany
  G. TSOUCARIS, Université Paris-Sud, Chatenay, France
  D. VITERBO, University of Turin, Italy
  M.M. WOOLFSON, University of York, UK


Extracted from the orange announcement on Jan 4, 2008. Here below, the group photo.

On their knees you see Alexander Roszak, Janos Rohonczy,, Lodovico, Manuela Scarsi and Ettore Sanfilippo (two ancestors of the orange scarves"); first row Jerry Karle, Franco Nicolò, Castellano from Brazil appearing between Franco and Isabella Karle, Celeste Reiss (behind Isabella), the Somali Mohamed Jama, Mercedes Camalli, Paul Beurskens, Carmelo Giacovazzo, Marija Luic, Bert Kinneging; soon back from Isabella, Henk Schenk (slightly covered) and father behind Paul is Nicholas Fiagbe, from Ghana. Just above Maria there is Doriano Lamba and also Cristina Burla, on top of Cristina, Polidori and on the same level Georges Tsoucaris; in middle of these two, little bit higher, Alessandro Coda; you see Peter Main just behind Giacovazzo; Herbert Hauptman is mid staircase, with black glasses...Miguel Coll on his left, followed by Paola bending almost out of the staircase; behind Paola a sad Suzanne Fortier....Almost hidden by Herb, is Cascarano. Along the wall, third last, Chris Gilmore with a visible beard....then, on top of the stair, from left Greg Van Duyne, Davide Viterbo, Klaus Bartels, Lassi Hiltunen.